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Cereals Analysis Methods

Cereals analysis is undertaken according to the following standards:

Grain and Feed Trade Association (GAFTA): Approved Analysts

1. Using methods of EU Regulation 1272/2009. The following are determined on Durum Wheat, Common Wheat, Barley, Maize, and Sorghum.

  • A. Maximum moisture content
  • B. Maximum percentage of matter which is not basic cereal of unimpaired quality:
  • 1. Broken grains
  • 2. Impurities consisting of grains (other than indicated at 3) which:
    • (a) shrivelled grains
    • (b) other cereals
    • (c) grains damaged by pests
    • (d) grains in which the germ is discoloured
    • (e) grains overheated during drying
  • 3. Mottled grains and/or grains affected with fusariosis, of which
  • - grains affected with fusariosis
  • 4. Sprouted grains
  • 5. Miscellaneous impurities (Schwarzbesatz), of which:
    • (a) extraneous seeds:
    • - noxious
    • - other
    • (b) damaged grains: of which:
    • - grains damaged by spontaneous heating or too extreme heating during drying
    • - other
    • (c) extraneous matter
    • (d) husks
    • (e) ergot
    • (f) decayed grains
    • (g) dead insects and fragments of insects
  • C. Maximum percentage of wholly or partially piebald grains
  • D. Maximum tannin content
  • E. Minimum specific weight (kg/hl)
  • F. Minimum protein content
  • G. Hagberg falling number (seconds)
  • H. Minimum Zeleny index (ml)
Wheat growing in a field Wheat grains
  1. Water
  2. Barley
  3. Malt
  4. Coloured Malts and Coloured Malt Products
  5. Cereal Adjuncts, Sugars, Syrups and Caramel
  6. Hops and Hop Products
  7. Wort
  8. Beer
  9. Process Aids
  10. Co-Products
  • Water
  • 2.1 Sampling of Water
  • 2.2 Chloride in Water: Conductometric Method (Archived method)
  • 2.3 Sulphate in Water: Gravimetric Method (Archived method)
  • Barley
  • 3.1 Sampling of Barley
  • 3.2 Moisture Content of Barley
  • 3.3.1 Total Nitrogen of Barley: Kjeldahl Method
  • 3.3.2 Total Nitrogen of Barley: Dumas Combustion Method
  • 3.4 Thousand Corn Weight of Barley
  • 3.5.1 Germinative Capacity of Barley: Rapid Staining Method
  • 3.5.2 Germination Capacity of Barley: Hydrogen Peroxide and Peeling method (RM)
  • 3.6.1 Germinative Energy of Barley: Aubry Method
  • 3.6.2 Germinative Energy of Barley: BRF Method
  • 3.6.3 Germinative Energy of Barley: Schönfeld Method
  • 3.7 Germinative Percentage and Germinative Indices of Barley
  • 3.8.1 Pre-Germinated Grains in Barley: Fluorescein Dibutyrate Method
  • 3.8.2 Pre-germinated Grains in Barley: Methylene Blue Method (Archived method)
  • 3.9 Husk Content of Barley (Archived method)
  • 3.10.1 High Molecular Weight β-Glucan Content of Barley: Enzymatic Method (Archived method)
  • 3.10.2 High Molecular Weight β-Glucan Content of Barley: Fluorimetric Method
  • 3.11.1 Sieving Test for Barley
  • 3.11.2 Visual Examination of Damaged Barley Kernels
  • 3.12 Identification of Varieties in Barley
  • 3.13 Moisture and Total Nitrogen in Barley by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Malt
  • 4.1 Sampling of Malt
  • 4.2 Moisture Content of Malt
  • 4.3.1 Total Nitrogen of Malt: Kjeldahl Method (IM)
  • 4.3.2 Total Nitrogen of Malt: Dumas Combustion Method
  • 4.4 Thousand Corn Weight of Malt
  • 4.5.1 Extract of Malt: Congress Mash
  • 4.5.2 Extract Difference of Malt: Congress Mash (Archived method)
  • 4.6.1 Hot Water Extract of Malt: Constant Temperature Mash
  • 4.6.2 Cold Water Extract of Ale, Lager and Distilling Malts (formerly published as IOB Method 2.6)
  • 4.7.1 Colour of Malt. Spectrophotometric Method (RM)
  • 4.7.2 Colour of Malt: Visual Method
  • 4.8 Viscosity of Laboratory Wort from Malt
  • 4.9.1 Soluble Nitrogen of Malt: Kjeldahl Method
  • 4.9.2 Soluble Nitrogen of Malt: Spectrophotometric Method
  • 4.9.3 Soluble Nitrogen of Malt: Dumas Combustion Method
  • 4.10 Free Amino Nitrogen of Malt by Spectrophotometry
  • 4.11.1 Fermentability, Final Attenuation of Laboratory Wort from Malt: Reference Method
  • 4.11.2 Fermentability, Final Attenuation of Laboratory Wort from Malt: Rapid Method
  • 4.11.3 Fermentability, Final Attenuation of Unboiled Worts of Ale, Lager and Distilling Malts: Constant Temperature Mash (formerly published as IOB Method 2.16)
  • 4.12 Diastatic Power of Malt
  • 4.13 α-Amylase Content of Malt (IM)
  • 4.14 Modification and Homogeneity of Malt: Calcofluor Method
  • 4.15 Friability, Glassy Corns and Unmodified Grains of Malt by Friabilimeter (IM)
  • 4.16.1 High Molecular Weight β-Glucan Content of Malt: Enzymatic Method (Archived method)
  • 4.16.2 High Molecular Weight β-Glucan Content of Malt and Malt Wort: Fluorimetric Method
  • 4.16.3 High Molecular Weight β-Glucan Content of Malt Wort: Spectrophotometric Method
  • 4.17 Moisture and Total Nitrogen in Malt by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
  • 4.19 Boiled Wort Colour
  • 4.20 Identification of Barley Varieties in Malt
  • 4.21 Glycosidic Nitrile in Ale, Lager and Distilling Malts (formerly published as IOB Method 2.21) (Archived method)
  • 4.22 Sieving Test for Malt
  • Coloured Malts and Coloured Malt Products
  • 5.1 Sampling of Coloured Malts and Coloured Malt Products
  • 5.2 Coloured Malt Beer: Extract
  • 5.3 Coloured Malt Beer: Colour
  • 5.4 Coloured Malts: Moisture
  • 5.5 Coloured Malts: Extract
  • 5.6 Coloured Malts: Colour, Visual Method
  • 5.7 Coloured Malts, Constant Temperature Mash: Extract (formerly published as IOB Method 3.3)
  • 5.8 Coloured Malts, Constant Temperature Mash: Colour, Visual Method (formerly published as IOB Method 3.4)
  • 5.9 Dark Malts and Roasted Barley, Constant Temperature Mash: Extract (formerly published as IOB Method 3.5)
  • 5.10 Dark Malts and Roasted Barley, Constant Temperature Mash: Colour, Visual Method (formerly published as IOB Method 3.6)
  • Cereal Adjuncts, Sugars, Syrups and Caramel
  • 6.1 Cereal Adjuncts, Sugars, Syrups and Caramel: Sampling of Cereal Adjuncts
  • 6.1.1 Sampling of Cereal Adjuncts
  • 6.1.2 Sampling of Sugars and Syrups
  • 6.2 Cereal Adjuncts, Sugars, Syrups and Caramel: Sampling of Sugar and Syrups
  • 6.2.1 Moisture Content of Unmalted Cereal Adjuncts other than Maize
  • 6.2.2 Moisture Content of Maize
  • 6.3 Extract Content of Solid Adjuncts: ASBC Method (IM)
  • 6.4 Extract Content of Solid Adjuncts: De Clerck Method
  • 6.5 Extract Content of Maize: Enzymatic Method
  • 6.6 Extract Content of Liquid Adjuncts: ASBC Method (IM)
  • 6.7 Extract Content of Caramel
  • 6.8 Colour of Caramel
  • 6.9 Colour of Liquid Adjuncts (IM)
  • 6.10 Fatty Substances in Cereal Adjuncts
  • 6.11 Apparent Fermentability of Sugars and Syrups (Archived method)
  • 6.12 Iron in Sugars and Syrups (formerly published as IOB Method 5.6)
  • 6.13 Copper in Sugars and Syrups (formerly published as IOB Method 5.7)
  • 6.14 Hot Water Extract of Wheat Flours, Barley Flours, Gelatinised Flakes and Torrefied Products, Constant Temperature Mash (formerly published as IOB Meth
  • 6.15 Hot Water Extract of Untreated Grain Grits and other Cereal Raw Grain, Constant Temperature Mash (formerly published as IOB Method 4.6)
  • 6.16 Colour of Wheat Flours, Barley Flours, Gelatinised Flakes and Torrefied Products, Constant Temperature Mash: Visual Method (formerly published as IOB Method 4.5)
  • Hops and Hop Products
  • 7.1 Sampling of Hops and Hop Products
  • 7.2 Moisture Content of Hops and Hop Products
  • 7.3 Seed Content of Hops (Archived method)
  • 7.4 Lead Conductance Value of Hops, Powders and Pellets
  • 7.5 Bitter Substances in Hops and Hop Products: Lead Conductance Value and Total Resin, Soft Resin and Hard Resin
  • 7.6 Bitter Substances in Hop Extracts: Lead Conductance Value and Total Resin, Soft Resin and Hard Resin
  • 7.7 α- and β-Acids in Hops and Hop Products by HPLC
  • 7.8 Iso-α-, α- and β-Acids in Hop and Isomerised Hop Extracts by HPLC
  • 7.9 Iso-α-Acids and reduced iso-α-Acids in Hop Products by HPLC
  • 7.10 Hop Oil Content of Hops and Hop Products
  • 7.11 Iso-α-, α- and β-Acids in Isomerised Hop Pellets by HPLC
  • 7.12 Hop Essential Oils by Capillary Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detection
  • 7.13 Hop Storage Index of Hops and Hop Pellets
  • 7.14 Total polyphenols in hops and hop pellets
  • Wort
  • 8.1 Sampling of Wort
  • 8.2.1 Specific Gravity of Wort using a Pyknometer
  • 8.2.2 Specific Gravity of Wort using a Density Meter
  • 8.3 Extract of Wort
  • 8.4 Viscosity of Wort (IM)
  • 8.5 Colour of Wort: Spectrophotometric Method (IM)
  • 8.6.1 Fermentability, Attenuation Limit of Wort Reference Fermentation
  • 8.6.2 Fermentability, Attenuation Limit of Wort Rapid Fermentation
  • 8.7 Fermentable Carbohydrates in Wort by HPLC (IM)
  • 8.8 Bitterness of Wort
  • 8.9.1 Total Nitrogen in Wort: Kjeldahl Method
  • 8.9.2 Total Nitrogen in Wort: Dumas Combustion Method
  • 8.10.1 Free Amino Nitrogen in Wort by Spectrophotometry - Manual method (IM)
  • 8.10.2 Free Amino Nitrogen in Wort by Segmented Flow Analysis (IM)
  • 8.11 Zinc in Wort by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (IM)
  • 8.12 Total Polyphenols in Wort by Spectrophotometry
  • 8.13.1 High Molecular Weight β-Glucan Content of Wort Enzymatic Method (Archived method)
  • 8.13.2 High Molecular Weight β-Glucan Content of Wort: Fluorimetric Method
  • 8.14 Total Carbohydrate in Wort by Spectrophotometry (Archived method)
  • 8.15 Chloride in Wort: Conductometric Method (Archived method)
  • 8.16 Sulphate in Wort: Gravimetric Method (Archived method)
  • 8.17 pH of Wort
  • 8.18 Calcium in Wort by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
  • 8.19.1 Dissolved Oxygen in Wort using Optical Sensors
  • 8.19.2 Dissolved Oxygen in Wort using Electrochemical Sensors
  • Beer
  • 9.1 Sampling of Beer before Filling
  • 9.2.1 Alcohol in Beer by Distillation
  • 9.2.2 Alcohol in Beer by Catalytic Combustion (Archived method)
  • 9.2.3 Alcohol in Beer by Refractometry
  • 9.2.4 Ethanol in Beer by Gas Chromatography
  • 9.2.5 Correction of Volatile Acidity (formerly published as IOB Method 9.7) (Archived method)
  • 9.2.6 Alcohol in Beer by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
  • 9.3.1 Ethanol in Alcohol Free and Low Alcohol Beers: Enzymatic Method (IM)
  • 9.3.2 Ethanol in alcohol free and low alcohol beers by Gas Chromatography
  • 9.4 Original, Real and Apparent Extract and Original Gravity of Beer
  • 9.5 Real Degree of Fermentation of Beer
  • 9.6 Colour of Beer: Spectrophotometric Method (IM)
  • 9.7 Final Attenuation of Beer
  • 9.8 Bitterness of Beer (IM)
  • 9.9.1 Total Nitrogen in Beer: Kjeldahl Method
  • 9.9.2 Total Nitrogen in Beer: Dumas Combustion Method
  • 9.10.1 Free Amino Nitrogen in Beer by Spectrophotometry (IM)
  • 9.10.2 Free Amino Nitrogen in Beer by discrete analyser (NOPA method)
  • 9.11 Total Polyphenols in Beer by Spectrophotometry (IM)
  • 9.12 Flavanoids in Beer by Spectrophotometry
  • 9.13.1 Iron in Beer by Spectrophotometry with 2,2-Bipyridyl or 1,10-Phenanthroline (Archived method)
  • 9.13.2 Iron in Beer by Spectrophotometry with Ferrozine (IM) (Archived method)
  • 9.13.3 Iron in Beer by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (IM)
  • 9.14.1 Copper in Beer by Spectrophotometry with ZDBT (IM) (Archived method)
  • 9.14.2 Copper in Beer by Spectrophotometry with Cuprethol: Rapid Method (IM) (Archived method)
  • 9.14.3 Copper in Beer By Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (IM)
  • 9.15 Nickel in Beer by Spectrophotometry with Dimethylglyoxime (Archived method)
  • 9.16 Sodium in Beer by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (IM)
  • 9.17 Potassium in Beer by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (IM)
  • 9.18 Magnesium in Beer by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (IM)
  • 9.19 Calcium in Beer by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (IM)
  • 9.20 Zinc in Beer by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (IM)
  • 9.21 Chloride in Beer: Conductometric Method (IM) (Archived method)
  • 9.22 Sulphate in Beer: Gravimetric Method (Archived method)
  • 9.23 Nitrate in Beer: Enzymatic Method (Archived method)
  • 9.24.1 Vicinal Diketones in Beer: Spectrophotometric Method
  • 9.24.2 Vicinal Diketones in Beer: Gas Chromatographic Method
  • 9.25.1 Total Sulphur Dioxide in Beer: Distillation Method
  • 9.25.2 Total Sulphur Dioxide in Beer: Enzymatic Method (Archived method)
  • 9.25.3 Total Sulphur Dioxide in Beer: p-Rosaniline Method (IM)
  • 9.26 Total Carbohydrate in Beer by Spectrophotometry
  • 9.27 Fermentable Carbohydrates in Beer by HPLC (IM)
  • 9.28.1 Carbon Dioxide in Beer: Titration Method (RM)
  • 9.28.2 Carbon Dioxide in Beer: Instrumental Method (Archived method)
  • 9.28.3 Carbon Dioxide in Beer: Pressure Method
  • 9.28.4 Carbon Dioxide in Beer by Thermal Conductivity Sensors
  • 9.28.5 Determination of dissolved Carbon Dioxide in Beer by Volume Expansion
  • 9.29 Haze in Beer: Calibration of Haze Meters
  • 9.30 Prediction of Shelf-Life of Beer
  • 9.31.1 High Molecular Weight β-Glucan Content of Beer: Enzymatic Method (Archived method)
  • 9.31.2 High Molecular Weight β-Glucan Content of Beer: Fluorimetric Method
  • 9.32 Acetic Acid in Beer: Enzymatic Method
  • 9.33 Glycerol in Beer: Enzymatic Method
  • 9.34 Lactic Acid in Beer: Enzymatic Method
  • 9.35 pH of Beer (formerly published as IOB Method 9.42)
  • 9.36 Anions in Beer by Ion Chromatography: Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate and Phosphate (IM)
  • 9.37.1 Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen by Optical Sensors
  • 9.37.2 Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen by Electrochemical Sensors
  • 9.38 Viscosity of Beer: Glass Capillary Viscometer (IM)
  • 9.39 Dimethyl Sulphide and Other Lower Boiling Point Volatile Compounds in Beer by Gas Chromatography
  • 9.40 Sensitive Proteins in Beer by Nephelometry
  • 9.41 Alcohol Chill Haze in Beer (Test Chapon)
  • 9.42.1 Foam Stability of Beer using the NIBEM-T Meter
  • 9.42.2 Determination of the foam stability number for beer and beer-mixed beverages with the Steinfurth Foam Stability Tester
  • 9.43.1 Specific Gravity of Beer using a Pyknometer
  • 9.43.2 Specific Gravity of Beer using a Density Meter
  • 9.44 Lead in Beer by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
  • 9.45 Energy Value of Beer by Calculation
  • 9.46 Decarbonation of Beer
  • 9.47 Iso-α-acids and reduced iso-α-acids (Rho, Tetra, Hexa) in beer by HPLC
  • 9.48 N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) content of Beer
  • Process Aids
  • 10.1 Sampling of Solid Process Aids
  • 10.2 Moisture Content of Solid Process Aids
  • 10.3 Calcination Loss of Filter Aids
  • 10.4 Density of the Wet Filter Bed of Filter Aids
  • 10.5 pH of an Aqueous Suspension of Filter Aids
  • 10.6 Soluble Iron Content of Solid Process Aids (IM)
  • 10.7 Solid Process Aids: Effect on Aroma and Taste (IM)
  • 10.8 Permeability of Filter Aids (RM)
  • 10.9 Filtration Rate of Filter Aids (Routine Method) (Archived method)
  • 10.10 Density and Thickness of Filter Sheets
  • 10.11 Brewery Gases: Effect on Aroma and Taste
  • Co-Products
  • 12.1 Sampling of Spent Grains
  • 12.2 Moisture Content of Spent Grains
  • 12.3 Total Available Extract in Spent Grains
  • 12.4 Soluble Extract in Spent Grains
  • 12.5 Total Residual Extract in Spent Grains (formerly published as IOB Method 12.7)
Malting barley drying

Pulses

  1. Codex Alimentarius Standard 171-1989 Standard for certain Pulses including Peas, Lentils, Beans, Chick peas.
    • 3.1 Quality factors - general
    • 3.1.1 Pulses shall be safe and suitable for human consumption.
    • 3.1.2 Pulses shall be free from abnormal flavour, odours, and living insects.
    • 3.1.3 Pulses shall be free from filth (impurities of animal origin, including dead insects) in amounts which may represent a hazard to human health.
    • 3.2 Quality factors - specific
    • 3.2.1 Moisture content
    • 3.2.2 Extraneous matter is mineral or organic matter:
      • dust
      • twigs
      • seedcoats
      • seeds of other species
      • dead insects
      • fragments or remains of insects
      • other impurities of animal origin).
    • 3.2.2.1 Toxic or noxious seeds
      • Crotolaria (Crotalaria spp.)
      • Corn cockle (Agrostemma githago L.)
      • Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.),
      • Jimson weed (Datura spp.),
      • and other seeds that are commonly recognized as harmful to health.
    • 4. CONTAMINANTS
    • 4.1 Heavy metals Pulses shall be free from heavy metals in amounts which may represent a hazard to health.
    • 4.2 Pesticide residues Pulses shall comply with those maximum residue limits established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for this commodity.
    • 4.3 Mycotoxins Pulses shall comply with those maximum mycotoxin limits established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for this commodity.
  2. USDA Standards for Pulses such as Peas, Split Peas, Feed Peas, Lentils, and Beans.

These standards cover characteristics for the following types of beans and pulse:
Pea beans, Blackeye beans (cowpeas of the Blackeye variety), Cranberry beans (Speckled Cranberry and Horticultural Pole), Yellow beans, Pinto beans, Marrow beans, Great Northern beans, Small White beans, Flat Small White beans, White Kidney beans, Light Red Kidney beans, Dark Red Kidney beans, Small Red beans (Red Mexican, California Red, and Idaho Red), Pink beans, Black beans, Mung beans, Large Lima beans, Baby Lima beans, Garbanzo Beans, Pea, Lentils, Split Green, and Pigeon Peas.

  • Sound beans
  • Moisture
  • Total Defects (excludes contrasting classes and splits)
  • Damaged beans
  • Foreign Material (total including stones)
  • Stones
  • Sclerotia
  • Goat Heads Tribulus terrestris
  • Stems, pods, berries and other vegetable matter
  • Dissolvable soil, dirt balls
  • Splits
  • Glass, metal, or plastic
  • Allergens (soybeans or wheat)
  • Seed size per 100 grams
  • Contrasting class
  • Classes that blend
  • Flavor and odor
  • Weevily beans
  • Clean-cut weevil-bored beans
  • Live weevils
  • Well screened
Pulses
  • Extraneous matter
    • a) organic
    • b) inorganic
  • Paddy
  • Husked rice
  • Milled rice
  • Heat-damaged kernels
  • Damaged kernels
  • Immature kernels
  • Chalky kernels
  • Red kernels
  • Red-streaked kernels
  • Glutinous rice
  • Pecks
Rice Grains

For further information please contact Mr Michael Blotz (E-Mail: Blotz@salamonandseaber.co.uk, consult our Arabic, French, Polish, or German speaking contacts, or use our quotation form.
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